Toompea castle has been a cornerstone of power for centuries. This was the case in times of foreign conquerors as well as self-government. In 1219, the Estonian fortress was replaced by the Danish fortress, which was thoroughly expanded in the following centuries by the rulers of all the local areas. After the Great Northern War, Toompea became the centre of the Estonian province, and the east wing of the fortress was rebuilt into a provincial government building. After Estonia’s independence, the young state erected its parliament building instead of the convent building that burned down during the events of the Revolution – it was the first among the independent countries after the First World War. The new building was designed by Herbert Johanson and Eugen Habermann, who studied in Riga and Germany, and modelled it on the expressionism experienced in Germany – from there also a decorative chunk motif and an unusual colour scheme restored to this day.
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